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Freediving research! Participants needed!

Antonis Elia

May 21, 2014
Hello everyone,

My name is Antonis Elia and I am a PhD Researcher at Leeds Beckett University, with my PhD research area being centralised in assessing the physiological mechanisms and adaptations of acute and chronic apnoeic training.
Below I have some information in regards to my study. If anyone has any questions or wants to get involved don't hesitate to post in the forum or send me an email at [email protected].

During breath-holding a series of physiological responses such as slowing of the heart rate, and blood redistribution towards the body’s vital organs has been found to occur; which help freedivers to hold their breath for longer durations.
However, the long-term response of red blood cells, erythropoietin and erythropoiesis during repeated breath-holding are not clear.
In addition, no data exist which investigated in any form the muscular components of freedivers. Therefore, the current study aims to provide for the first time an inside and a greater understanding of the muscular and physiological responses during and following a series of repeated static and dynamic breath-holds.

Participants who successfully complete the study will receive a £50 amazon voucher!!


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Porky Pig

Sep 13, 2016
Hey, you should broaden your study to Aida/ equivalent 'qualified' freedivers otherwise you will exclude those who have taken courses with e.g. SSI/RAID which are equally recognised.

Happy to take part (I am based in London). PM me.

Also, and this may be a layperson's naïveté, but "acute" and "chronic" to me make freediving sound like a pathology!

Great that you are doing your PhD on freediving
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New Member
Jun 22, 2020
Antonis Elia said:
I'm a PhD student doing my research for my thesis paper. A part of my PhD research is to do an interview and domyhomeworkonline on the physiological mechanisms and responses ...
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Hi, I'm now taking up a course in Psychology and Pathophysiology of Human Breath-Hold Diving at my university (as an additional summer course). My research topic is quite similar, as I will need to analyze up to 5 neurocognitive markers during prolonged breath-holding. I'd be grateful for any resources and references I can rely upon in my theoretical part.


Well-Known Member
Oct 26, 2012
You may find these papers useful:

Gren M, Shahim P, Lautner R, et al. Blood biomarkers indicate mild neuroaxonal injury and increased amyloid β production after transient hypoxia during breath-hold diving. Brain Inj. 2016;30(10):1226-1230. doi:10.1080/02699052.2016.1179792

Ridgway L, McFarland K. Apnea diving: long-term neurocognitive sequelae of repeated hypoxemia. Clin Neuropsychol. 2006;20(1):160-176. doi:10.1080/13854040590947407

Bain AR, Ainslie PN, Hoiland RL, et al. Competitive apnea and its effect on the human brain: focus on the redox regulation of blood-brain barrier permeability and neuronal-parenchymal integrity. FASEB J. 2018;32(4):2305-2314. doi:10.1096/fj.201701031R

Billaut F, Gueit P, Faure S, Costalat G, Lemaître F. Do elite breath-hold divers suffer from mild short-term memory impairments?. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018;43(3):247-251. doi:10.1139/apnm-2017-0245

Linér MH, Andersson JP. Hypoxic syncope in a competitive breath-hold diver with elevation of the brain damage marker S100B. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009;80(12):1066-1068. doi:10.3357/asem.2554.2009

Andersson JP, Linér MH, Jönsson H. Increased serum levels of the brain damage marker S100B after apnea in trained breath-hold divers: a study including respiratory and cardiovascular observations. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107(3):809-815. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.91434.2008

Ratmanova P, Semenyuk R, Popov D, et al. Prolonged dry apnoea: effects on brain activity and physiological functions in breath-hold divers and non-divers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(7):1367-1377. doi:10.1007/s00421-016-3390-2

Kjeld T, Jattu T, Nielsen HB, Goetze JP, Secher NH, Olsen NV. Release of erythropoietin and neuron-specific enolase after breath holding in competing free divers. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25(3):e253-e257. doi:10.1111/sms.12309
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